In today’s Times, David Pannick QC adopts an argument of Barber, Hickman and King as to why an Act of Parliament is required before Brexit can take place. It is not correct and so needs to be addressed.
The argument is that as acting under Article 50 alone commits the United Kingdom to withdrawal it is thereby inconsistent with the European Communities Act. An Act cannot be overturned by an exercise of a government power (“Royal Prerogative”). An Act is required to overturn an earlier Act. As the European Communities Act incorporated EU law into UK domestic law, so an Act would be required to bring to an end such incorporation.
The European Communities Act incorporates EU law into the UK domestic law. This includes whatever EU law is “from time to time” (ie changes to EU law occurring after 1972). Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union is part of that law. The European Communities Act 1972 requires that Article 50 be given effect. If under EU law, EU law ceases to apply to the UK, the European Communities Act requires that this be given effect under UK domestic law. Once two years have elapsed (if not extended) following notice under Article 50, EU law ceases to apply to the United Kingdom. This notice can only be given by the government: Parliament itself is not an actor in international law.
So, not only is an Act of Parliament unnecessary to bring to an end the UK’s membership of the European Union, it is the European Communities Act itself that necessitates this conclusion. This conclusion is not only not inconsistent with the European Communities Act, it is required by it.
Put another way, it is simply an error to think that as an Act was required to incorporate EU law, so it is required to remove it. Once Art 50 has been followed, there is nothing to incorporate.
Barber, Hickman and King call analysis such as the above “formalistic”. I would give it a different label. Legal.